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of Scotland, King of Scotland Malcolm II b. 954 Scotland d. 1 Dec 1034 Glammis, Angus, Scotland

of Scotland, King of Scotland Malcolm II

Male 954 - 1034  (80 years)

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  • Name of Scotland, Malcolm 
    Title King of Scotland 
    Suffix II 
    Born 954  Scotland Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Gender Male 
    Died 1 Dec 1034  Glammis, Angus, Scotland Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Buried Isle of Iona, Elgin, Moray, Scotland Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Person ID I26345  The Thoma Family
    Last Modified 26 Oct 2017 

    Father of Scotland, Kenneth II 
    Relationship natural 
    Family ID F9788  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

     1. ingen Maíl Coluim meic Cináeda, Bethóc,   b. UNKNOWN, Scotland Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. DECEASED, Scotland Find all individuals with events at this location  [natural]
    Last Modified 26 Oct 2017 
    Family ID F9787  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

  • Event Map
    Link to Google MapsBorn - 954 - Scotland Link to Google Earth
     = Link to Google Earth 

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    of SCOTLAND, Malcom II

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    of SCOTLAND, Malcom II

  • Notes 
    • Malcolm II

      King of Scots
      Reign 1005–1034
      Predecessor Kenneth III
      Successor Duncan I
      Born c. 954
      Died 25 November 1034
      Burial Iona
      Issue Bethóc
      House Alpin
      Father Kenneth II
      Malcolm II of Scotland
      From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
      Malcolm (Gaelic: Máel Coluim; c. 954 - 25 November
      1034)[1] was King of the Scots from 1005 until his death.[2]
      He was a son of King Kenneth II; the Prophecy of Berchán
      says that his mother was a woman of Leinster and refers to
      him as Forranach, "the Destroyer".[3]
      To the Irish annals which recorded his death, Malcolm was
      ard rí Alban, High King of Scotland. In the same way that
      Brian Bóruma, High King of Ireland, was not the only king
      in Ireland, Malcolm was one of several kings within the
      geographical boundaries of modern Scotland: his fellow
      kings included the king of Strathclyde, who ruled much of
      the south-west, various Norse-Gael kings on the western
      coast and the Hebrides and, nearest and most dangerous
      rivals, the kings or Mormaers of Moray. To the south, in the
      Kingdom of England, the Earls of Bernicia and Northumbria,
      whose predecessors as kings of Northumbria had once ruled
      most of southern Scotland, still controlled large parts of the
      1 Early years
      2 Children
      3 Bernicia
      4 Cnut
      5 Orkney and Moray
      6 Strathclyde and the succession
      7 Death and posterity
      8 Notes
      9 References
      10 External links
      Early years
      Malcolm II was born to Kenneth II of Scotland. He was grandson of Malcolm I of Scotland. In 997, the killer
      of Constantine is credited as being Kenneth, son of Malcolm. Since there is no known and relevant Kenneth
      alive at that time (King Kenneth having died in 995), it is considered an error for either Kenneth III, who
      succeeded Constantine, or, possibly, Malcolm himself, the son of Kenneth II.[5] Whether Malcolm killed
      Constantine or not, there is no doubt that in 1005 he killed Constantine's successor Kenneth III in battle at
      Monzievaird in Strathearn.[6]
      John of Fordun writes that Malcolm defeated a Norwegian army "in almost the first days after his coronation",
      but this is not reported elsewhere. Fordun says that the Bishopric of Mortlach (later moved to Aberdeen) was
      founded in thanks for this victory over the Norwegians.[7]
      Malcolm demonstrated a rare ability to survive among early Scottish kings by reigning for twenty-nine years.
      He was a clever and ambitious man. Brehon tradition provided that the successor to Malcolm was to be selected
      by him from among the descendants of King Aedh, with the consent of Malcolm's ministers and of the church.
      Ostensibly in an attempt to end the devastating feuds in the north of Scotland, but obviously influenced by the
      Norman feudal model, Malcolm ignored tradition and determined to retain the succession within his own line.
      But since Malcolm had no son of his own, he undertook to negotiate a series of dynastic marriages of his three
      daughters to men who might otherwise be his rivals, while securing the loyalty of the principal chiefs, their
      relatives. First he married his daughter Bethoc to Crinan, Thane of The Isles, head of the house of Atholl and
      secular Abbot of Dunkeld; then his youngest daughter, Olith, to Sigurd, Earl of Orkney. His middle daughter,
      Donada, was married to Finlay, Earl of Moray, Thane of Ross and Cromarty and a descendant of Loarn of
      Dalriada. This was risky business under the rules of succession of the Gael, but he thereby secured his rear and,
      taking advantage of the renewal of Viking attacks on England, marched south to fight the English. He defeated
      the Angles at Carham in 1018 and installed his grandson, Duncan, son of the Abbot of Dunkeld and his choice
      as Tanist, in Carlisle as King of Cumbria that same year.[8]
      The first reliable report of Malcolm II's reign is of an invasion of Bernicia in 1006, perhaps the customary crech
      ríg (literally royal prey, a raid by a new king made to demonstrate prowess in war), which involved a siege of
      Durham. This appears to have resulted in a heavy defeat by the Northumbrians, led by Uhtred of Bamburgh,
      later Earl of Bernicia, which is reported by the Annals of Ulster.[9]
      A second war in Bernicia, probably in 1018, was more successful. The Battle of Carham, by the River Tweed,
      was a victory for the Scots led by Malcolm II and the men of Strathclyde led by their king, Owen the Bald. By
      this time Earl Uchtred may have been dead, and Eiríkr Hákonarson was appointed Earl of Northumbria by his
      brother-in-law Cnut the Great, although his authority seems to have been limited to the south, the former
      kingdom of Deira, and he took no action against the Scots so far as is known.[10] The work De obsessione
      Dunelmi (The siege of Durham, associated with Symeon of Durham) claims that Uchtred's brother Eadwulf
      Cudel surrendered Lothian to Malcolm II, presumably in the aftermath of the defeat at Carham. This is likely to
      have been the lands between Dunbar and the Tweed as other parts of Lothian had been under Scots control
      before this time. It has been suggested that Cnut received tribute from the Scots for Lothian, but as he had
      likely received none from the Bernician Earls this is not very probable.[11]
      Cnut, reports the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, led an army into Scotland on his return from pilgrimage to Rome.
      The Chronicle dates this to 1031, but there are reasons to suppose that it should be dated to 1027.[12]
      Burgundian chronicler Rodulfus Glaber recounts the expedition soon afterwards, describing Malcolm as
      "powerful in resources and arms … very Christian in faith and deed."[13] Ralph claims that peace was made
      between Malcolm and Cnut through the intervention of Richard, Duke of Normandy, brother of Cnut's wife
      Emma. Richard died in about 1027 and Rodulfus wrote close in time to the events.[14]
      It has been suggested that the root of the quarrel between Cnut and Malcolm lies in Cnut's pilgrimage to Rome,
      and the coronation of Holy Roman Emperor Conrad II, where Cnut and Rudolph III, King of Burgundy had the
      place of honour. If Malcolm were present, and the repeated mentions of his piety in the annals make it quite
      possible that he made a pilgrimage to Rome, as did Mac Bethad mac Findláich ("Macbeth") in later times, then
      the coronation would have allowed Malcolm to publicly snub Cnut's claims to overlordship.[15]
      Cnut obtained rather less than previous English kings, a promise of peace and friendship rather than the
      promise of aid on land and sea that Edgar and others had obtained. The sources say that Malcolm was
      accompanied by one or two other kings, certainly Mac Bethad, and perhaps Echmarcach mac Ragnaill, King of
      Mann and the Isles, and of Galloway.[16] The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle remarks of the submission "but he
      [Malcolm] adhered to that for only a little while".[17] Cnut was soon occupied in Norway against Olaf
      Haraldsson and appears to have had no further involvement with Scotland.
      Orkney and Moray
      Olith a daughter of Malcolm, married Sigurd Hlodvisson, Earl of Orkney.[18] Their son Thorfinn Sigurdsson
      was said to be five years old when Sigurd was killed on 23 April 1014 in the Battle of Clontarf. The
      Orkneyinga Saga says that Thorfinn was raised at Malcolm's court and was given the Mormaerdom of
      Caithness by his grandfather. Thorfinn, says the Heimskringla, was the ally of the king of Scots, and counted on
      Malcolm's support to resist the "tyranny" of Norwegian King Olaf Haraldsson.[19] The chronology of
      Thorfinn's life is problematic, and he may have had a share in the Earldom of Orkney while still a child, if he
      was indeed only five in 1014.[20] Whatever the exact chronology, before Malcolm's death a client of the king of
      Scots was in control of Caithness and Orkney, although, as with all such relationships, it is unlikely to have
      lasted beyond his death.
      If Malcolm exercised control over Moray, which is far from being generally accepted, then the annals record a
      number of events pointing to a struggle for power in the north. In 1020, Mac Bethad's father Findláech mac
      Ruaidrí was killed by the sons of his brother Máel Brigte.[21] It seems that Máel Coluim mac Máil Brigti took
      control of Moray, for his death is reported in 1029.[22]
      Despite the accounts of the Irish annals, English and Scandinavian writers appear to see Mac Bethad as the
      rightful king of Moray: this is clear from their descriptions of the meeting with Cnut in 1027, before the death
      of Malcolm mac Máil Brigti. Malcolm was followed as king or earl by his brother Gillecomgan, husband of
      Gruoch, a granddaughter of King Kenneth III. It has been supposed that Mac Bethad was responsible for the
      killing of Gille Coemgáin in 1032, but if Mac Bethad had a cause for feud in the killing of his father in 1020,
      Malcolm too had reason to see Gille Coemgáin dead. Not only had Gillecomgan's ancestors killed many of
      Malcolm's kin, but Gillecomgan and his son Lulach might be rivals for the throne. Malcolm had no living sons,
      and the threat to his plans for the succession was obvious. As a result, the following year Gruoch's brother or
      nephew, who might have eventually become king, was killed by Malcolm.[23]
      Strathclyde and the succession
      It has traditionally been supposed that King Owen the Bald of Strathclyde died at the Battle of Carham and that
      the kingdom passed into the hands of the Scots afterwards. This rests on some very weak evidence. It is far
      from certain that Owen died at Carham, and it is reasonably certain that there were kings of Strathclyde as late
      as 1054, when Edward the Confessor sent Earl Siward to install "Malcolm son of the king of the Cumbrians".
      The confusion is old, probably inspired by William of Malmesbury and embellished by John of Fordun, but
      there is no firm evidence that the kingdom of Strathclyde was a part of the kingdom of the Scots, rather than a
      loosely subjected kingdom, before the time of Malcolm II of Scotland's great-grandson Malcolm Canmore.[24]
      By the 1030s Malcolm's sons, if he had any, were dead. The only evidence that he did have a son or sons is in
      Rodulfus Glaber's chronicle where Cnut is said to have stood as godfather to a son of Malcolm.[25] His
      grandson Thorfinn would have been unlikely to be accepted as king by the Scots, and he chose the sons of his
      other daughter, Bethóc, who was married to Crínán, lay abbot of Dunkeld, and perhaps Mormaer of Atholl. It
      may be no more than coincidence, but in 1027 the Irish annals had reported the burning of Dunkeld, although
      no mention is made of the circumstances.[26] Malcolm's chosen heir, and the first tánaise ríg certainly known in
      Scotland, was Duncan.
      19th-century engraving of "King
      Malcolm's grave stone" (Glamis no.
      2) at Glamis
      It is possible that a third daughter of Malcolm married Findláech mac Ruaidrí and that Mac Bethad was thus his
      grandson, but this rests on relatively weak evidence.[27]
      Death and posterity
      Malcolm died in 1034, Marianus Scotus giving the date as 25
      November 1034. The king lists say that he died at Glamis, variously
      describing him as a "most glorious" or "most victorious" king. The
      Annals of Tigernach report that "Malcolm mac Cináeda, king of
      Scotland, the honour of all the west of Europe, died." The Prophecy of
      Berchán, perhaps the inspiration for John of Fordun and Andrew of
      Wyntoun's accounts where Malcolm is killed fighting bandits, says that
      he died by violence, fighting "the parricides", suggested to be the sons
      of Máel Brigte of Moray.[28]
      Perhaps the most notable feature of Malcolm's death is the account of
      Marianus, matched by the silence of the Irish annals, which tells us that
      Duncan I became king and ruled for five years and nine months. Given
      that his death in 1040 is described as being "at an immature age" in the
      Annals of Tigernach, he must have been a young man in 1034. The
      absence of any opposition suggests that Malcolm had dealt thoroughly
      with any likely opposition in his own lifetime.[29]
      Tradition, dating from Fordun's time if not earlier, knew the Pictish
      stone now called "Glamis 2" as "King Malcolm's grave stone". The stone is a Class II stone, apparently formed
      by re-using a Bronze Age standing stone. Its dating is uncertain, with dates from the 8th century onwards
      having been proposed. While an earlier date is favoured, an association with accounts of Malcolm's has been
      proposed on the basis of the iconography of the carvings.[30]
      On the question of Malcolm's putative pilgrimage, pilgrimages to Rome, or other long-distance journeys, were
      far from unusual. Thorfinn Sigurdsson, Cnut and Mac Bethad have already been mentioned. Rognvald Kali
      Kolsson is known to have gone crusading in the Mediterranean in the 12th century. Nearer in time, Dyfnwal of
      Strathclyde died on pilgrimage to Rome in 975 as did Máel Ruanaid uá Máele Doraid, King of the Cenél
      Conaill, in 1025.
      Not a great deal is known of Malcolm's activities beyond the wars and killings. The Book of Deer records that
      Malcolm "gave a king's dues in Biffie and in Pett Meic-Gobraig, and two davochs" to the monastery of Old
      Deer.[31] He was also probably not the founder of the Bishopric of Mortlach-Aberdeen. John of Fordun has a
      peculiar tale to tell, related to the supposed "Laws of Malcolm MacKenneth", saying that Malcolm gave away
      all of Scotland, except for the Moot Hill at Scone, which is unlikely to have any basis in fact.[32]
      1. Skene, Chronicles, pp. 99–100.
      2. Malcolm's birth date is not known, but must have been around 980 if thFel ateyjarbók is right in dating the marriage of
      his daughter and Sigurd Hlodvisson to the lifetime of Olaf Tryggvason; Early Sources, p. 528, quoting Olaf
      Tryggvason's Saga.
      3. Early Sources, pp. 574–575.
      4. Higham, pp. 226–227, notes that the kings of the English had neither lands nor mints north of thTee es.
      5. Early Sources, pp. 517–518. John of Fordun has Malcolm as the killer; Duncan, p. 46, creditKs enneth MacDuff with
      the death of Constantine.
      6. Chronicon Scotorum, s.a. 1005; Early Sources, pp. 521–524; Fordun, IV, xxxviii. Berchán places Cináed's death by the
      7. Early Sources, p. 525, note 1; Fordun, IV, xxxix–xl.
      For primary sources see also External links below.
      Anderson, Alan Orr, Early Sources of Scottish History A.D. 500–1286, volume 1. Reprinted with corrections. Paul
      Watkins, Stamford, 1990. ISBN 1-871615-03-8
      Anon., Orkneyinga Saga: The History of the Earls of Orkne,y tr. Hermann Pálsson and Paul Edwards. Penguin, London,
      1978. ISBN 0-14-044383-5
      8. 1. BETHOC [Beatrix Beatrice Betoch] "Genealogy of King William the Lyon" dated 1175 names "Betoch filii
      Malcolmi" as parent of "Malcolmi filii Dunecani". The Chronicle of the Scots and Picts dated1 717 names "Cran
      Abbatis de Dunkelden et Bethok filia Malcolm mac Kynnet" as parents of King Duncan. source Beatrice who married
      Crynyne Abthane of Dul and Steward of the Isles 2. DONADA [Dovada Duada Doada Donalda] R alph Holinshed's
      1577 Chronicle of Scotland names "Doada" as second daughter of Malcolm II King of Scotland and adds that she
      married "Sinell the thane of Glammis, by whom she had issue one Makbeth". 3. OLITH [Alice Olith Anlite] Orkneyinga
      Saga records that "Earl Sigurd" married "the daughter of Malcolm King of Scots". Snorre records the marriage of
      "Sigurd the Thick" and "a daughter of the Scottish king Malcolm". Ulster journal of archaeolo,g Vyolume 6 By Ulster
      Archaeological Society names her as (Alice) wife of Sygurt and daughter of Malcolm II. The American historical
      magazine, Volume 2 By Publishing Society of New York, Americana Society pg 529 names her Olith or Alice.
      9. Duncan, pp. 27–28; Smyth, pp. 236–237; Annals of Ulste, rs.a. 1006.
      10. Duncan, pp. 28–29 suggests that Earl Uchtred may not have died until 1018. Fletcher accepts that he died in Spring
      1016 and the Eadwulf Cudel was Earl of Bernicia when Carham was fought in 1018; Higham, pp. 225–230, agrees.
      Smyth, pp. 236–237 reserves judgement as to the date of the battle, 1016 or 1018, and whether Uchtred was still living
      when it was fought. See also Stenton, pp. 418–419.
      11. Early Sources, p. 544, note 6; Higham, pp. 226–227.
      12. ASC, Ms D, E and F; Duncan, pp. 29–30.
      13. Early Sources, pp. 545–546.
      14. Ralph was writing in 1030 or 1031; Duncan, p. 31.
      15. Duncan, pp. 31–32; the alternative, he notes, that Cnut was concerned about support foOrl af Haraldsson, "is no better
      16. Duncan, pp. 29–30. St. Olaf's Saga, c. 131 says "two kings came south from Fife in Scotland" to meet Cnut, suggesting
      only Malcolm and Mac Bethad, and that Cnut returned their lands and gave them gifts. That Echmarcach was king of
      Galloway is perhaps doubtful; the Annals of Ulster record the death oSf uibne mac Cináeda, rí Gall-Gáedel ("King of
      Galloway") by Tigernach, in 1034.
      17. ASC, Ms. D, s.a. 1031.
      18. Early Sources, p. 528; Orkneyinga Saga, c. 12.
      19. Orkneyinga Saga, cc. 13–20 & 32; St. Olaf's Saga, c. 96.
      20. Duncan, p.42; reconciling the various dates of Thorfinn's life appears impossible on the face of it. Either he was born
      well before 1009 and must have died long before 1065, or the accounts in thOe rkneyinga Saga are deeply flawed.
      21. Annals of Tigernach, s.a. 1020; Annals of Ulste,r s.a. 1020, but the killers are not named. The Annals of Ulstern ad the
      Book of Leinster call Findláech "king of Scotland".
      22. Annals of Ulster and Annals of Tigernach, s.a. 1029. Malcolm's death is not said to have been by violence and he too is
      called king rather than mormaer.
      23. Duncan, pp. 29–30, 32–33 and compare HudsonP, rophecy of Berchán, pp. 222–223. Early Sources, p.571; Annals of
      Ulster, s.a. 1032 & 1033; Annals of Loch Cé, s.a. 1029 & 1033. The identity of theM . m. Boite killed in 1033 is
      uncertain, being reading as "the son of the son of Boite" or as "M. son of Boite", Gruoch's brother or nephew
      24. Duncan, pp. 29 and 37–41; Oram,D avid I, pp. 19–21.
      25. Early Sources, p. 546; Duncan, pp. 30–31, understands Rodulfus Glaber as meaning that Duke Richard was godfather to
      a son of Cnut and Emma.
      26. Annals of Ulster and Annals of Loch Cé, s.a. 1027.
      27. Hudson, pp. 224–225 discusses the question and the reliability oAf ndrew of Wyntoun's chronicle, on which this rests.
      28. Early Sources, pp. 572–575; Duncan, pp. 33–34.
      29. Duncan, pp. 32–33.
      30. Laing, Lloyd (2001), "The date and context of the Glamis, Angus, carved Pictish stones ("http://webarchive.nationalarch
      ives.gov.uk/20090809004407/http://ads.ahds.ac.uk/catalogue/adsdata/PSAS_2002/pdf/vol_311/131_223_239.pdf) (PDF),
      Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, Edinburgh, 131: 223–239, archived from the original (http://ads.a
      hds.ac.uk/catalogue/adsdata/PSAS_2002/pdf/vol_131/131_223_239.pd f()PDF) on 2009-08-09
      31. Gaelic Notes in the Book of Deer.
      32. Fordun, IV, xliii and Skene's notes; Duncan, p. 150; Barrow, Kingdom of the Scots, p. 39.
      Barrow, G.W.S., The Kingdom of the Scots. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, 2003. ISBN 0-7486-1803-1
      Clarkson, Tim, Strathclyde and the Anglo-Saxons in the Viking Age, Birlinn, Edinburgh, 2014, ISBN 9781906566784
      Duncan, A.A.M., The Kingship of the Scots 842–1292: Succession and Independenc eE.dinburgh University Press,
      Edinburgh, 2002. ISBN 0-7486-1626-8
      Fletcher, Richard, Bloodfeud: Murder and Revenge in Anglo-Saxon England. Penguin, London, 2002. ISBN 0-14-
      John of Fordun, Chronicle of the Scottish Nation, ed. William Forbes Skene, tr. Felix J.H. Skene, 2 vols. Reprinted,
      Llanerch Press, Lampeter, 1993. ISBN 1-897853-05-X
      Higham, N.J., The Kingdom of Northumbria AD 350–100. Sutton, Stroud, 1993. ISBN 0-86299-730-5
      Hudson, Benjamin T., The Prophecy of Berchán: Irish and Scottish High-Kings of the Early Middle Age sG. reenwood,
      London, 1996.
      Smyth, Alfred P. Warlords and Holy Men: Scotland AD 80–100. Reprinted, Edinburgh: Edinburgh UP, 1998. ISBN 0-
      Stenton, Sir Frank, Anglo-Saxon England .3rd edition, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1971IS BN 0-19-280139-2
      Sturluson, Snorri, Heimskringla: History of the Kings of Norway, tr. Lee M. Hollander. Reprinted University of Texas
      Press, Austin, 1992. ISBN 0-292-73061-6
      External links
      CELT: Corpus of Electronic Texts at University College Cork includes the Annals of Ulster, Tigernach,
      the Four Masters and Innisfallen, the Chronicon Scotorum, the Lebor Bretnach (which includes the Duan
      Albanach), Genealogies, and various Saints' Lives. Most are translated into English, or translations are in
      Heimskringla at World Wide School
      "icelandic sagas" at Northvegr
      Anglo-Saxon Chronicle an XML edition by Tony Jebson (translation at OMACL)
      Malcolm II, King of Alba 1005 – 1034. Scotland's History. BBC.
      Malcolm II of Scotland
      House of Alpin
      Born: c. 980 Died: 25 November 1034
      Regnal titles
      Preceded by
      Kenneth III
      King of Scots
      Succeeded by
      Duncan I
      Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Malcolm_II_of_Scotland&oldid=787161720"
      Categories: 1034 deaths House of Alpin 11th-century Scottish monarchs Burials at Iona Abbey
      954 births
      This page was last edited on 23 June 2017, at 20:16.
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