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ap Gruffydd, Owain b. 1100 Gwynedd, Wales d. 23 Nov 1170

ap Gruffydd, Owain

Male 1100 - 1170  (70 years)


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  • Name ap Gruffydd, Owain 
    Born 1100  Gwynedd, Wales Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Gender Male 
    Died 23 Nov 1170 
    Person ID I26357  The Thoma Family
    Last Modified 26 Oct 2017 

    Father ap Cynan, Gruffydd,   b. 1055, Dublin, Dublin, Ireland Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 1137, Gwynedd, Wales Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 82 years) 
    Relationship natural 
    Mother verch Owain, Angharad 
    Relationship natural 
    Family ID F9800  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Children 
     1. ap Owain Gwynedd, Iorwerth,   b. 1164, Aberffraw Castle, Aberffraw, Anglesey, Wales Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 18 Apr 1240, Aberconwy Abbey, Conwy, Caernarvonshire, Wales Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 76 years)  [natural]
    Last Modified 26 Oct 2017 
    Family ID F9799  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

  • Event Map
    Link to Google MapsBorn - 1100 - Gwynedd, Wales Link to Google Earth
     = Link to Google Earth 

  • Documents
    ap GRUFFUDD, Owain.pdf
    ap GRUFFUDD, Owain.pdf

  • Notes 
    • Owain Gwynedd
      Prince of Gwynedd
      King of All Wales
      Predecessor Gruffudd ap Cynan
      Successor Rhys ap Gruffydd
      King of Gwynedd
      Reign 1137-1170
      Predecessor Gruffudd ap Cynan
      Successor Hywel ab Owain Gwynedd
      Born c. 1100
      Gwynedd, Wales?
      Died 23 or 28 November 1170 (aged 69–70)
      Burial Bangor Cathedral
      Spouse Gwladus ferch Llywarch, Cristin ferch
      Goronwy
      Issue Rhun ab Owain Gwynedd
      Hywel ab Owain Gwynedd
      Iorwerth "Drwyndwn" ab
      Owain Gwynedd
      Maelgwn ab Owain Gwynedd
      Gwenllian ferch Owain
      Gwynedd
      Dafydd ab Owain Gwynedd
      Rhodri ab Owain Gwynedd
      Angharad ferch Owain
      Gwynedd
      Margaret ferch Owain
      Gwynedd
      Iefan ferch Owain Gwynedd
      Cynan ab Owain Gwynedd
      Rhirid ab Owain Gwynedd
      Rhirid ab Owain Gwynedd
      Madoc ab Owain Gwynedd
      Cynwrig ab Owain Gwynedd
      Gwenllian ferch Owain
      Gwynedd
      Einion ab Owain Gwynedd
      Iago ab Owain Gwynedd
      Ffilip ab Owain Gwynedd
      Cadell ab Owain Gwynedd
      Rotpert ab Owain Gwynedd
      Idwal ab Owain Gwynedd
      Owain Gwynedd
      From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
      Owain ap Gruffudd (c. 1100 – 23 or 28 November 1170)
      was King of Gwynedd, North Wales, from 1137 until his
      death in 1170, succeeding his father Gruffudd ap Cynan. He
      was called "Owain the Great" (Welsh: Owain Mawr) [1] and
      the first to be styled "Prince of Wales".[2] He is considered to
      be the most successful of all the North Welsh princes prior to
      his grandson, Llywelyn the Great. He became known as
      Owain Gwynedd (Middle Welsh: Owain Gwyned, "Owain
      of Gwynedd") to distinguish him from the contemporary
      king of Powys Wenwynwyn, Owain ap Gruffydd ap
      Maredudd, who became known as Owain Cyfeiliog.[3]
      Contents
      1 Early life
      2 Accession to the throne and early campaigns
      3 War with King Henry II
      4 Disputes with the church and succession
      5 Heirs and successors
      6 Ancestry
      7 Fiction
      8 Titles
      9 References
      9.1 Sources
      Early life
      Owain Gwynedd was a member of the House of Aberffraw,
      the senior branch of the dynasty of Rhodri the Great. His
      father, Gruffudd ap Cynan, was a strong and long-lived ruler
      who had made the principality of Gwynedd the most
      influential in Wales during the sixty-two years of his reign,
      using the island of Anglesey as his power base. His mother,
      Angharad ferch Owain, was the daughter of Owain ab Edwin
      of Tegeingl. Owain Gwynedd was the second son of
      Gruffydd and Angharad. His elder brother, Cadwallon, was
      killed in fighting in Powys in 1132.
      Owain is thought to have been born on Anglesey about the
      year 1100. By about 1120 Gruffydd had grown too old to
      lead his forces in battle and Owain and his brothers
      Cadwallon and later Cadwaladr led the forces of Gwynedd
      against the Normans and against other Welsh princes with
      great success. His elder brother Cadwallon was killed in a
      battle against the forces of Powys in 1132, leaving Owain as
      his father's heir. Owain and Cadwaladr, in alliance with
      House Aberffraw
      Father Gruffudd ap Cynan
      Mother Angharad ferch Owain
      Gruffydd ap Rhys of Deheubarth, won a major victory over
      the Normans at Crug Mawr near Cardigan in 1136 and
      annexed Ceredigion to their father's realm.
      Accession to the throne and early
      campaigns
      On Gruffydd's death in 1137, therefore, Owain inherited a portion of a well-established kingdom, but had to
      share it with Cadwaladr. In 1143 Cadwaladr was implicated in the murder of Anarawd ap Gruffydd of
      Deheubarth, and Owain responded by sending his son Hywel ab Owain Gwynedd to strip him of his lands in
      the north of Ceredigion. Though Owain was later reconciled with Cadwaladr, from 1143, Owain ruled alone
      over most of north Wales. In 1155 Cadwaladr was driven into exile.
      Owain took advantage of the Anarchy, a civil war between Stephen, King of England, and the Empress
      Matilda, to push Gwynedd's boundaries further east than ever before.[4] In 1146 he captured Mold Castle and
      about 1150 captured Rhuddlan and encroached on the borders of Powys. The prince of Powys, Madog ap
      Maredudd, with assistance from Earl Ranulf of Chester, gave battle at Coleshill, but Owain was victorious.
      War with King Henry II
      All went well until the accession of King Henry II of England in 1154. Henry invaded Gwynedd in 1157 with
      the support of Madog ap Maredudd of Powys and Owain's brother Cadwaladr. The invasion met with mixed
      fortunes. Henry's forces ravaged eastern Gwynedd and destroyed many churches thus enraging the local
      population. The two armies met at Ewloe. Owain's men ambushed the royal army in a narrow, wooded valley,
      routing it completely with King Henry himself narrowly avoiding capture.[5] The fleet accompanying the
      invasion made a landing on Anglesey where it was defeated. Ultimately, at the end of the campaign, Owain was
      forced to come to terms with Henry, being obliged to surrender Rhuddlan and other conquests in the east.
      Forty years after these events, the scholar, Gerald of Wales, in a rare quote from these times, wrote what Owain
      Gwynedd said to his troops on the eve of battle:
      "My opinion, indeed, by no means agrees with yours, for we ought to rejoice at this conduct of our
      adversary; for, unless supported by divine assistance, we are far inferior to the English; and they,
      by their behaviour, have made God their enemy, who is able most powerfully to avenge both
      himself and us. We therefore most devoutly promise God that we will henceforth pay greater
      reverence than ever to churches and holy places."[5]
      Madog ap Maredudd died in 1160, enabling Owain to regain territory in the east. In 1163 he formed an alliance
      with Rhys ap Gruffydd of Deheubarth to challenge English rule. King Henry again invaded Gwynedd in 1165,
      but instead of taking the usual route along the northern coastal plain, the king's army invaded from Oswestry
      and took a route over the Berwyn hills. The invasion was met by an alliance of all the Welsh princes, with
      Owain as the undisputed leader. However, apart from a small melee at the Battle of Crogen there was little
      fighting, for the Welsh weather came to Owain's assistance as torrential rain forced Henry to retreat in disorder.
      The infuriated Henry mutilated a number of Welsh hostages, including two of Owain's sons.
      Henry did not invade Gwynedd again and Owain was able to regain his eastern conquests, recapturing
      Rhuddlan castle in 1167 after a siege of three months.
      Disputes with the church and succession
      There is no evidence
      Owain used a coat of
      arms during his life, but
      later antiquarians
      retroactively attributed to
      Owain Gwynedd the
      blazon: Vert, three eagles
      displayed in fess Or.
      The last years of Owain's life were spent in disputes with the Archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Becket, over
      the appointment of a new Bishop of Bangor. When the see became vacant Owain had his nominee, Arthur of
      Bardsey, elected. The archbishop refused to accept this, so Owain had Arthur consecrated in Ireland. The
      dispute continued, and the see remained officially vacant until well after Owain's death. He was also put under
      pressure by the Archbishop and the Pope to put aside his second wife, Cristin, who was his first cousin, this
      relationship making the marriage invalid under church law. Despite being excommunicated for his defiance,
      Owain steadfastly refused to put Cristin aside. Owain died in 1170, and despite having been excommunicated
      was buried in Bangor Cathedral by the local clergy. The annalist writing Brut y Tywysogion recorded his death
      "after innumerable victories, and unconquered from his youth".
      He is believed to have commissionedThe Life of Gruffydd ap Cynan, an account of his father's life. Following
      his death, civil war broke out between his sons. Owain was married twice, first to Gwladus ferch Llywarch ap
      Trahaearn, by whom he had two sons, Maelgwn ab Owain Gwynedd and Iorwerth Drwyndwn, the father of
      Llywelyn the Great, then to Cristin, by whom he had three sons including Dafydd ab Owain Gwynedd and
      Rhodri ab Owain Gwynedd. He also had a number of illegitimate sons, who by Welsh law had an equal claim
      on the inheritance if acknowledged by their father.
      Heirs and successors
      Owain had originally designated Rhun ab Owain Gwynedd as his successor. Rhun
      was Owain's favourite son, and his premature death in 1146 plunged his father into
      a deep melancholy, from which he was only roused by the news that his forces had
      captured Mold castle. Owain then designated Hywel ab Owain Gwynedd as his
      successor, but after his death Hywel was first driven to seek refuge in Ireland by
      Cristina's sons, Dafydd and Rhodri, then killed at the battle of Pentraeth when he
      returned with an Irish army. Dafydd and Rhodri split Gwynedd between them, but
      a generation passed before Gwynedd was restored to its former glory under
      Owain's grandson Llywelyn the Great.
      According to legend, one of Owain's sons was Prince Madoc, who is popularly
      supposed to have fled across the Atlantic and colonised America.
      Altogether, the prolific Owain Gwynedd is said to have had the following children
      from two wives and at least four mistresses:
      Rhun ab Owain Gwynedd (illegitimate in Catholic custom, but legitimate
      successor in Welsh law)
      Hywel ab Owain Gwynedd (illegitimate in Catholic custom, but legitimate
      successor in Welsh law)
      Iorwerth ab Owain Gwynedd (the "flat nose", also called Edward in some sources, from first wife
      Gwladys (Gladys) ferch Llywarch)
      Maelgwn ab Owain Gwynedd,(from first wife Gwladys (Gladys) ferch Llywarch) Lord of Môn (1169–
      1173)
      Gwenllian ferch Owain Gwynedd
      Dafydd ab Owain Gwynedd (from second wife Cristina (Christina) ferch Gronw)
      Rhodri ab Owain Gwynedd, Lord of Môn (1175–1193) (from second wife Cristina (Christina) ferch
      Gronw)
      Angharad ferch Owain Gwynedd
      Margaret ferch Owain Gwynedd
      Iefan ab Owain Gwynedd
      Cynan ab Owain Gwynedd, Lord of Meirionnydd (illegitimate)
      Rhirid ab Owain Gwynedd (illegitimate)
      Madoc ab Owain Gwynedd (illegitimate) (speculative/legendary)
      Cynwrig ab Owain Gwynedd (illegitimate)
      Gwenllian II ferch Owain Gwynedd (also shared the same name with a sister)
      Einion ab Owain Gwynedd (illegitimate)
      Iago ab Owain Gwynedd (illegitimate)
      Ffilip ab Owain Gwynedd (illegitimate)
      Cadell ab Owain Gwynedd (illegitimate)
      Rotpert ab Owain Gwynedd (illegitimate)
      Idwal ab Owain Gwynedd (illegitimate)
      Other daughters
      Ancestry
      16. Idwal ap Meurig ap Idwal Foel
      8. Iago ab Idwal ap Meurig
      4. Cynan ab Iago
      2. Gruffudd ap Cynan
      20. Sigtrygg Silkbeard
      10. Amlaíb mac Sitriuc
      21. Sláine daughter of Brian Boru
      5. Ragnhilda of Ireland
      1. Owain
      Gwynedd
      24. Einion ab Owain
      12. Edwin ab Einion
      6. Owain ab Edwin
      3. Angharad ferch Owain
      Fiction
      Owain is a recurring character in the Brother Cadfael series of novels by Ellis Peters, often referred to, and
      appearing in the novels Dead Man's Ransom and The Summer of the Danes. He acts shrewdly to keep Wales's
      borders secure, and sometimes to expand them, during the civil war between King Stephen and Matilda, and
      sometimes acts as an ally to Cadfael and his friend, Sheriff Hugh Beringar. Cadwaladr also appears in both
      these novels as a source of grief for his brother. Owain appears as a minor character in novels of Sharon Kay
      Penman concerning Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine (When Christ and His Saints Slept and Time and
      Chance). Her focus with respect to Owain is on the fluctuating and factious relationship between England and
      Wales.
      He also appears in the Sarah Woodbury 'Gareth and Gwen Medieval Mystery Series' of books.
      Titles
      Owain Gwynedd
      House of Aberffraw
      Cadet branch of the House of Gwynedd
      Born: c. 1100 Died: 23 or 28 November 1 170
      Regnal titles
      Preceded by
      Gruffudd ap Cynan
      Prince of Gwynedd
      1137–1169
      Succeeded by
      Hywel ab Owain Gwynedd
      References
      Sources
      Lloyd, John Edward (2004). A History of Wales: From the Norman Invasion to the Edwardian Conquest.
      Barnes & Noble. ISBN 978-0-7607-5241-8.
      Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Owain_Gwynedd&oldid=786302027"
      Categories: House of Aberffraw Monarchs of Gwynedd
      People excommunicated by the Roman Catholic Church 1100s births 1170 deaths
      12th-century Welsh monarchs Welsh princes Welsh people of Irish descent
      This page was last edited on 18 June 2017, at 15:41.
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      trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.
      1. Lloyd 2004, p. 94.
      2. Davies, John; Jenkins, Nigel; Baines, Menna; Lynch,
      Peredur I., eds. (2008). The Welsh Academy
      Encyclopaedia of Wales. Cardiff: University of Wales
      Press. p. 636. ISBN 978-0-7083-1953-6.
      3. Lloyd 2004, p. 93.
      4. R. R. Davies, Conquest, Coexistence and Change.
      4. R. R. Davies, Conquest, Coexistence and Change.
      Wales 1063-1415 (Oxford, 1987), p. 229.
      5. "Gerald of Wales, Itinirum Cambrae" (http://www.buil
      dinghistory.org/primary/gerald2.shtml).
      Buildinghistory.org. 2010-03-16. Retrieved
      2013-03-01.