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ap Cynan, Gruffydd b. 1055 Dublin, Dublin, Ireland d. 1137 Gwynedd, Wales

ap Cynan, Gruffydd

Male 1055 - 1137  (82 years)

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  • Name ap Cynan, Gruffydd 
    ap CYNAN, Gruffydd.pdf
    ap CYNAN, Gruffydd.pdf
    Born 1055  Dublin, Dublin, Ireland Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Gender Male 
    Royal House House of Aberffraw 
    Died 1137  Gwynedd, Wales Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Buried 1137  Bangor Cathedral, Bangor, Gwynedd, Wales Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Person ID I26358  The Thoma Family
    Last Modified 26 Oct 2017 

    Father ap Iago, Cynan,   b. 1014, Malltraeth, Anglesey, Wales Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 1063, Dublin, Dublin, Ireland Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 49 years) 
    Relationship natural 
    Mother ingen Amlaíb, Ragnailt,   b. 1015, Dublin, Dublin, Ireland Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Relationship natural 
    Married 1054  Caernarvonshire, Wales Find all individuals with events at this location  [1, 2
    Family ID F9801  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family verch Owain, Angharad 
     1. ap Gruffydd, Owain,   b. 1100, Gwynedd, Wales Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 23 Nov 1170  (Age 70 years)  [natural]
    Last Modified 26 Oct 2017 
    Family ID F9800  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

  • Event Map
    Link to Google MapsBorn - 1055 - Dublin, Dublin, Ireland Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsDied - 1137 - Gwynedd, Wales Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsBuried - 1137 - Bangor Cathedral, Bangor, Gwynedd, Wales Link to Google Earth
     = Link to Google Earth 

  • Photos
    ap CYNAN, Gruffydd.jpg
    ap CYNAN, Gruffydd.jpg

  • Notes 
    • Gruffudd ap Cynan

      King of Gwynedd
      Reign 1081–1137
      Predecessor Trahaearn ap Caradog
      Successor Owain Gwynedd
      Born c. 1055
      Dublin, Ireland
      Died 1137
      Gwynedd, Wales
      Burial Bangor Cathedral
      Spouse Angharad ferch Owain
      Issue Cadwallon, Owain Gwynedd,
      Cadwaladr, Susanna, Gwenllian
      House Aberffraw
      Father Cynan ab Iago
      Mother Ragnailt ingen Amlaíb
      Gruffudd ap Cynan
      From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
      Gruffudd ap Cynan (c. 1055 – 1137), sometimes written as
      Gruffydd ap Cynan, was King of Gwynedd from 1081 until
      his death in 1137. In the course of a long and eventful life, he
      became a key figure in Welsh resistance to Norman rule, and
      was remembered as King of all Wales. As a descendant of
      Rhodri Mawr, Gruffudd ap Cynan was a senior member of
      the princely House of Aberffraw.[1]
      Through his mother, Gruffudd had close family connections
      with the Norse settlement around Dublin and he frequently
      used Ireland as a refuge and as a source of troops. He three
      times gained the throne of Gwynedd and then lost it again,
      before regaining it once more in 1099 and this time keeping
      power until his death. Gruffudd laid the foundations which
      were built upon by his son Owain Gwynedd and his greatgrandson
      Llywelyn the Great.
      1 Life
      1.1 Ancestry
      1.2 First bid for the throne
      1.3 Second bid for the throne and capture by
      the Normans
      1.4 Escape from captivity and third reign
      1.5 King for the fourth time and consolidation
      2 Death and succession
      3 Children
      4 Ancestry
      5 References
      5.1 Notes
      5.2 Citations
      5.3 Sources
      Unusually for a Welsh king or prince, a near-contemporary
      biography of Gruffudd, The history of Gruffudd ap Cynan,
      has survived. Much of our knowledge of Gruffudd comes
      from this source. The traditional view among scholars was that it was written during the third quarter of the
      12th century during the reign of Gruffudd's son, Owain Gwynedd, but it has recently been suggested that it may
      date from the early reign of Llywelyn the Great, around 1200. The author is not known.
      Most of the existing manuscripts of the history are in Welsh but these are clearly translations of a Latin original.
      It is usually considered that the original Latin version has been lost, and that existing Latin versions are retranslations
      from the Welsh. However Russell (2006) has suggested that the Latin version in Peniarth MS 434E
      incorporates the original Latin version, later amended to bring it into line with the Welsh text.
      Coat of Arms retroactively attributed
      to Gryffudd ap Cynan
      According to the Life of Gruffudd ap Cynan, Gruffudd was born in Dublin and reared near Swords, County
      Dublin in Ireland. He was the son of a Welsh Prince, Cynan ap Iago, who was a claimant to the Kingship of
      Gwynedd but was probably never king of Gwynedd, though his father, Gruffudd's grandfather, Iago ab Idwal ap
      Meurig had ruled Gwynedd from 1023 to 1039. When Gruffudd first appeared on the scene in Wales the Welsh
      annals several times refer to him as "grandson of Iago" rather than the more usual "son of Cynan", indicating
      that his father was little known in Wales. Cynan ap Iago seems to have died while Gruffudd was still young,
      since the History describes his mother telling him who his father was.
      According to Historia Gruffud vab Kenan, Gruffudd's mother was Ragnailt ingen Amlaíb, a granddaughter of
      King Sigtrygg Silkbeard and a member of the Hiberno-Norse Uí Ímair dynasty.[2] The latter had two sons
      named Amlaíb: one died in 1013, whilst another died in 1034. Either man could have been Ragnailt's father.
      During his many struggles to gain the kingship of Gwynedd, Gruffudd received considerable aid from Ireland,
      from the Hiberno-Norse at Dublin, the Isles and Wexford and from Muircheartach Ua Briain.
      First bid for the thr one
      Gruffudd first attempted to take over the rule of Gwynedd in 1075, following the death of Bleddyn ap Cynfyn.
      Trahaearn ap Caradog had seized control of Gwynedd but had not yet firmly established himself. Gruffudd
      landed on Abermenai Point, Anglesey with an Irish force, and with the assistance of troops provided by the
      Norman Robert of Rhuddlan first defeated and killed Cynwrig ap Rhiwallon, an ally of Trahaearn who held
      Llŷn, then defeated Trahaearn himself in the battle of Gwaed Erw in Meirionnydd and gained control of
      Gruffudd then led his forces eastwards to reclaim territories taken over by the Normans, and despite the
      assistance previously given by Robert of Rhuddlan attacked and destroyed Rhuddlan Castle. However tension
      between Gruffudd's Danish-Irish bodyguard and the local Welsh led to a rebellion in Llŷn, and Trahaearn took
      the opportunity to counterattack, defeating Gruffudd at the battle of Bron yr Erw above Clynnog Fawr the same
      Second bid for the thr one and capture by the Normans
      Gruffudd fled to Ireland but, in 1081, returned and made an alliance
      with Rhys ap Tewdwr, prince of Deheubarth. Rhys had been attacked by
      Caradog ap Gruffudd of Gwent and Morgannwg, and had been forced to
      flee to St David's Cathedral. Gruffudd this time embarked from
      Waterford with a force composed of Danes and Irish and landed near St
      David's, presumably by prior arrangement with Rhys. He was joined
      here by a force of his supporters from Gwynedd, and he and Rhys
      marched north to seek Trahaearn ap Caradog and Caradog ap Gruffudd
      who had themselves made an alliance and been joined by Meilyr ap
      Rhiwallon of Powys. The armies of the two confederacies met at the
      Battle of Mynydd Carn, with Gruffudd and Rhys victorious and
      Trahaearn, Caradog and Meilyr all being killed. Gruffudd was thus able
      to seize power in Gwynedd for the second time.
      He was soon faced with a new enemy, as the Normans were now
      encroaching on Gwynedd. Gruffudd had not been king very long when
      he was enticed to a meeting with Hugh, Earl of Chester and Hugh, Earl
      of Shrewsbury at Rhug, near Corwen. At the meeting Gruffudd was seized and taken prisoner. According to his
      biographer this was by the treachery of one of his own men, Meirion Goch. Gruffudd was imprisoned in Earl
      Hugh's castle at Chester for many years while Earl Hugh and Robert of Rhuddlan went on to take possession of
      Gwynedd, building castles at Bangor, Wales Bangor, Caernarfon and Aberlleiniog.
      Escape from captivity and third reign
      Gruffudd reappeared on the scene years later, having escaped from captivity. According to his biography he
      was in fetters in the market-place at Chester when Cynwrig the Tall, on a visit to the city, saw his opportunity
      when the burgesses were at dinner. He picked Gruffudd up, fetters and all, and carried him out of the city on his
      shoulders. There is debate among historians as to the year of Gruffudd's escape. Ordericus Vitalis mentions a
      "Grifridus" attacking the Normans in 1088. The History in one place states that Gruffudd was imprisoned for
      twelve years, in another that he was imprisoned for sixteen years. Since he was captured in 1081, that would
      date his release to 1093 or 1097. J.E. Lloyd favours 1093, considering that Gruffudd was involved at the
      beginning of the Welsh uprising in 1094. K.L. Maund on the other hand favours 1097, pointing out that there is
      no reference to Gruffudd in the contemporary annals until 1098. D. Simon Evans inclines to the view that
      Ordericus Vitalis' date of 1088 could be correct, suggesting that an argument based on the silence of the annals
      is unsafe.
      Gruffudd again took refuge in Ireland but returned to Gwynedd to lead the assaults on Norman castles such as
      Aber Lleiniog. The Welsh revolt had begun in 1094 and by late 1095 had spread to many parts of Wales. This
      induced William II of England (William Rufus) to intervene, invading northern Wales in 1095. However his
      army was unable to bring the Welsh to battle and returned to Chester without having achieved very much. King
      William mounted a second invasion in 1097, but again without much success. The History only mentions one
      invasion by Rufus, which could indicate that Gruffudd did not feature in the resistance to the first invasion. At
      this time Cadwgan ap Bleddyn of Powys led the Welsh resistance.
      In the summer of 1098, Earl Hugh of Chester joined with Earl Hugh of Shrewsbury in another attempt to
      recover his losses in Gwynedd. Gruffudd and his ally Cadwgan ap Bleddyn retreated to Anglesey, but were
      then forced to flee to Ireland in a skiff when a fleet he had hired from the Danish settlement in Ireland accepted
      a better offer from the Normans and changed sides.
      King for the fourth time and consolidation
      The situation was changed by the arrival of a Norwegian fleet under the command of King Magnus III of
      Norway, also known as Magnus Barefoot, who attacked the Norman forces near the eastern end of the Menai
      Straits. Earl Hugh of Shrewsbury was killed by an arrow said to have been shot by Magnus himself. The
      Normans were obliged to evacuate Anglesey, and the following year, Gruffudd returned from Ireland to take
      possession again, having apparently come to an agreement with Earl Hugh of Chester.
      With the death of Hugh of Chester in 1101, Gruffudd was able to consolidate his position in Gwynedd, as much
      by diplomacy as by force. He met King Henry I of England who granted him the rule of Llŷn, Eifionydd,
      Ardudwy and Arllechwedd, considerably extending his kingdom. By 1114, he had gained enough power to
      induce King Henry to invade Gwynedd in a three-pronged attack, one detachment led by King Alexander I of
      Scotland. Faced by overwhelming force, Gruffudd was obliged to pay homage to Henry and to pay a heavy
      fine, but lost no territory. By about 1118, Gruffudd's advancing years meant that most of the fighting, which
      pushed Gwynedd's borders eastward and southwards, was done by his three sons by his wife Angharad,
      daughter of Owain ab Edwin of Tegeingl: Cadwallon, Owain Gwynedd and later Cadwaladr. The cantrefs of
      Rhos and Rhufoniog were annexed in 1118, Meirionnydd captured from Powys in 1123, and Dyffryn Clwyd in
      1124. Another invasion by the king of England in 1121 was a military failure. The king had to come to terms
      with Gruffudd and made no further attempt to invade Gwynedd during Gruffudd's reign. The death of
      Cadwallon in a battle against the forces of Powys near Llangollen in 1132 checked further expansion for the
      time being.
      Gruffudd was now powerful enough to ensure that his nominee David the Scot was consecrated as Bishop of
      Bangor in 1120. The see had been effectively vacant since Bishop Hervey le Breton had been forced to flee by
      the Welsh almost twenty years before, since Gruffudd and King Henry could not agree on a candidate. David
      went on to rebuild Bangor Cathedral with a large financial contribution from Gruffudd.
      Gruffudd was buried in Bangor
      Owain and Cadwaladr, in alliance with Gruffudd ap Rhys of Deheubarth, gained a crushing victory over the
      Normans at Crug Mawr near Cardigan in 1136 and took possession of Ceredigion. The latter part of Gruffydd's
      reign was considered to be a "Golden Age"; according to the Life of Gruffudd ap Cynan Gwynedd was
      "bespangled with lime-washed churches like the stars in the firmament".
      Death and succession
      Gruffudd died in his bed, old and blind, in 1137 and was mourned by the
      annalist of Brut y Tywysogion as the "head and king and defender and
      pacifier of all Wales". He was buried by the high altar in Bangor Cathedral
      which he had been involved in rebuilding. He also made bequests to many
      other churches, including one to Christ Church Cathedral, Dublin where he
      had worshipped as a boy. He was succeeded as king of Gwynedd by his son
      Owain Gwynedd. His daughter Gwenllian, who married Gruffudd ap Rhys
      of Deheubarth, son of his old ally Rhys ap Tewdwr, is also notable for her
      resistance to English rule.
      The family line of Cynan shows he had many children by several different women.[3] With wife Angharad
      (daughter of Owain ab Edwin) he had:[4]
      Owain Gwynedd (Owain ap Gruffudd),[1] married (1) Gwladus (Gladys) ferch Llywarch, daughter of
      Llywarch ap Trahaearn (2) Cristin ferch Goronwy, daughter of Goronwy ab Owain
      Cadwaladr ap Gruffudd, married Alice de Clare, daughter of Richard Fitz Gilbert de Clare
      Cadwallon ap Gruffudd[5]
      Susanna, married Madog ap Maredudd, prince of Powys
      Gwenllian ferch Gruffudd, married Gruffudd ap Rhys, prince of Deheubarth
      Ancestors of Gruffudd ap Cynan
      16. Meurig ap Idwal Foel
      8. Idwal ap Meurig
      4. Iago ab Idwal
      2. Cynan ab Iago
      1. Gruffudd ap Cynan
      24. Amlaíb Cuarán
      12. Sigtrygg Silkbeard
      6. Amlaíb
      3. Ragnailt
      Llwyd, Humphrey (2002). Cronica Walliae. University of Wales Press. ISBN 978-0-7083-1638-2.
      Lloyd, John Edward (2004). A History of Wales: From the Norman Invasion to the Edwardian Conquest.
      Banes & Noble. ISBN 978-0-7607-5241-8.
      R.R. Davies (1991). The age of conquest: Wales 1063–1415. O.U.P. ISBN 0-19-820198-2.
      Simon Evans (1990). A Mediaeval Prince of Wales: the Life of Gruffudd Ap Cynan. Llanerch Enterprises.
      ISBN 0-947992-58-8.
      Hudson, Benjamin T. (2005). Viking Pirates and Christian Princes: Dynasty, Religion, and Empire in the
      North Atlantic (Illustrated ed.). United States: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195162374, ISBN 978-0-
      Arthur Jones (1910). The history of Gruffydd ap Cynan: the Welsh text with translation, introduction and
      notes. Manchester University Press.. Translation online at The Celtic Literature Collective
      K.L. Maund (ed) (1996). Gruffudd ap Cynan: a collaborative biography. Boydell Press. ISBN 0-85115-
      Kari Maund (ed) (2006). The Welsh kings:warriors, warlords and princes. Tempus. ISBN 0-7524-2973-
      Paul Russell (ed) (2006). Vita Griffini Filii Conani: The Medieval Latin Life of Gruffudd Ap Cynan.
      University of Wales Press. ISBN 0-7083-1893-2.
      Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America Before 1700 by Frederick Lewis
      Weis, Lines: 176B-26, 239–5
      Gruffudd ap Cynan
      House of Aberffraw
      Cadet branch of the House of Gwynedd
      Born: c. 1055 Died: 11 April 1137
      Regnal titles
      Preceded by
      Trahaearn ap Caradog
      King of Gwynedd
      Succeeded by
      Owain Gwynedd
      Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Gruffudd_ap_Cynan&oldid=786425342"
      Categories: 1050s births 1137 deaths Monarchs of Gwynedd House of Aberffraw Uí Ímair
      British people of Scandinavian descent 11th-century Welsh monarchs 12th-century Welsh monarchs
      People from Dublin (city) Norse-Gaelic monarchs Welsh people of Irish descent
      This page was last edited on 19 June 2017, at 11:43.
      1. Lloyd 2004, p. 93.
      2. Hudson, p 83
      3. Llwyd 2002, p. 151.
      4. Lloyd 2004, p. 274.
      5. Lloyd 2004, p. 78.
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  • Sources 
    1. [S789] Web: Family Search, Family Tree.

    2. [S791] Web: Ancestry.com, Family Trees.